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RL练习册 2017-08-11  文章作者:未知


Loggerhead turtles are the most abundant of all the marine turtle species in U.S. waters. But persistent population declines due to pollution, shrimp trawling, and development in their nesting areas, among other factors, have kept this wide-ranging seagoer on the threatened species list since 1978. Their enormous range encompasses all but the most frigid waters of the world's oceans. They seem to prefer coastal habitats, but often frequent inland water bodies and will travel hundreds of miles out to sea. The largest of all hard-shelled turtles—leatherbacks are bigger but have soft shells—loggerheads have massive heads, strong jaws, and a reddish-brown shell, or carapace. Adult males reach about three feet in shell length and weigh about 250 pounds, but large specimens of more than 1,000 pounds have been found. They are primarily carnivores, munching jellyfish, conchs, crabs, and even fish, but will eat seaweed and sargassum occasionally. Mature females will often return, sometimes over thousands of miles, to the beach where they hatched to lay their eggs. Worldwide population numbers are unknown, but scientists studying nesting populations are seeing marked decreases despite endangered species protections. 


I'm 43 years old and I owe tens of thousands of dollars in student loans. Oh sure, I knew the loans were piling up as I went through school. But with one loan coming from here, another from there, I had no idea of the rockslide that was building. Fifteen years later, I still experience moments of sheer horror regarding my family's financial situation. My monthly student loan payment is more than triple my car payment. OK, so without my college degree, I would not have been able to get my current job. For that I'm grateful; but at what cost? My loans have been accruing at a rate of 10 percent, and now they have burgeoned to — well, I'm an English major, you do the math. I don't think they'll ever get paid off. We're in debt way past our eyeballs, and there's no hope in sight. I'm being kept in class — a financial class of graduates whose only hope for attending college meant borrowing money from the government. Because of our mounting credit card debt and monthly payments that far exceed our family's income, my kids will also join the class of citizens who can't rely on their parents for college support. Do I wish I'd chosen another educational route? You bet. Perhaps trade school — I've thought that being a plumber might not be such a bad gig. But if your job aspirations require a four-year degree, take my advice and choose a college you can afford, both during and after graduation. Take a realistic look at your anticipated income, and factor in priorities that don't carry a price — like the spouse and children you might want to have some day. I was overconfident that my student-loan debt would pale in comparison to the lucrative writing career I'd enjoy after graduation. Now I'm paying for that decision — in more ways than I'd ever imagined. 


So, you see, physical illness can have psychological causes. Now, we just have time to introduce another interesting example of the interaction between the mind and the body, placebos. Placebos—maybe you've heard them called sugar pills—are harmless substances, not always sugar, that are used routinely on groups of sick people in experiments. These experiments test the effectiveness of new drugs. One group is given the new drug, the other group is given a placebo, and the results are measured. As you might guess, some of the people who receive the new drug get better. Surprisingly, however, some of the placebo group also get better. Why? Well, it's an interesting question, one which doctors can't quite answer. Some of the group may have gotten better on their own, without any treatment at all, but research has shown that the very act of taking a medication that you think will make you better, often does make you feel better. Have you ever taken an aspirin and felt better in five minutes? Aspirin doesn't work that fast, does it? Basically, if you believe you will get better, sometimes you do. The history of how doctors and healers have used the mind-body connection to cure people is long and interesting, but I see that it's time to chose, so I'll have to cover this in the next class. You'll have to hold your questions on this topic till then. Before you go, I have some handouts for you concerning the midterm exams next week.


Everyone is interested in improving their diet. Adding grains is one of the easiest ways. Many people in the United States have a growing concern about nutrition, so grains are often served in restaurants. And many grains are now available in grocery stores, too, though for some you still have to go to health food stores. You can stock up when you go, though, because uncooked grains keep a long time. You'll find that grains are easy to prepare. Many grains are as simple to cook as spaghetti. Barley, for instance, is just cooked in salted water. Remember, though, whole-grain barley, the most nutritious kind, never will get as tender as spaghetti no matter how long it's cooked. Grain-based salads are easy, too. Just use grains left over from a hot meal. You call even put together a grain salad hours before you need it, since grains don't wilt like lettuce does. But to get back to health factors, all grains are nutritious and many have special benefits. Barley has very little fat. Some experts believe that it may even reduce cholesterol levels. Jasmine rice is also low in fat. And it has a bonus in its wonderful aroma, a very special fragrance.

As Dr. Miller mentioned, we're trying to recruit volunteers for the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary. But before I get into the details of the volunteer program, I'd just like to tell you a little about what we do there. One of our main jobs is to keep detailed records of the migration patterns of raptors. For those of you who don't know, raptors are birds of prey, like hawks and eagles. Between August and December, we see around twenty different species migrating from Canada and New England. About 20,000 birds. Part of what attracts them to Hawk Mountain is the location on the East Ridge of the Appalachian Mountains. What happens is that the sun warms the ridge in such a way that air currents are formed. The birds just sort of glide along on the air, so they use up very little energy. As volunteers, you'll be helping us keep accurate counts of the raptors. Any drop in number could mean something's gone wrong in the environment because of pesticides or disease, even hunting. We just had a scare with the broad-winged hawks. Their numbers have dropped drastically over the last ten years. It was suggested that the birds may have changed their migratory route. So for 11 days we had several hundred volunteers—stationed every five miles—to observe and count. And sure enough, they discovered that instead of hugging the Appalachians as they'd always done, the broad-wings were cutting a wide path over the Delaware River. Needless to say, we were greatly relieved.

I understand your professor has been discussing several Eastern Woodland Indian tribes in your study of Native American cultures. As you have probably learned, the Eastern Woodland Indians get their name from the forest-covered areas of the Eastern United States where they lived. The earliest Woodland cultures date back 9,000 years, but the group we'll focus on dates back only to about 700 A.D. We now call these Native Americans the Mississippian culture, because they settled in the Mississippi River valley. This civilization is known for its flat-topped monuments called temple mounds. They were made of earth and used as temples and official residences. The temple mounds were located in the central square of the city, with the huts of the townspeople built in rows around the plaza. The Mississippian people were city dwellers. But some city residents earned their living as farmers, tending the fields of corn, beans, and squash that surrounded the city. The city's artisans made arrowheads, leather goods, pottery, and jewelry. Traders came from far away to exchange raw materials for these items. In the slides I'm about to show, you will see models of a Mississippian city.


I'm going to talk about a train that exemplifies the rise and fall of passenger trains in the United States: the Twentieth Century Limited. Let me go back just a bit. In 1893, a special train was established to take people from New York to an exposition in Chicago. It was so successful that regular service was then set up between these cities. The inaugural trip of the Twentieth Century Limited was made in 1902. The train was different from what anyone had ever seen before. It was pulled by a steam engine and had five cars: two sleepers, a dining car, an observation car, and a baggage car, which, believe it or not, contained a library. The 42 passengers the train could carry were waited on by a large staff. There were even secretaries and a barber on board. It wasn't long before people had to wait two years to get a reservation. As time passed, technical improvements shortened the trip by a few hours. Perhaps the biggest technological change occurred in 1945, the switch from steam to diesel engines. By the 1960's, people were traveling by car and airplane. Unfortunately, the great old train didn't survive until the end of the century it was named for.